Ovarian Cancer Surgeon in Ahmedabad

What is Ovarian Cancer?

Cancer that happens due to the abnormal growth of genes that controls cell growth mutation is known as ovarian cancer. The female reproductive system contains two ovaries, one on each side of the uterus. Each ovary is about the size of an almond, produces eggs (ova), and also the sex hormones named estrogen and progesterone. These hormones play a vital role in female traits, such as breast development, body shape, and body hair.

Symptoms for ovarian cancer

The most common symptoms women are likely to have if the disease has spread, but is at an early-stage ovarian cancer include: Bloating Pelvic or abdominal (belly) pain Trouble eating or feeling full too soon Urinary symptoms such as feeling pressure or pain in the bladder and frequent urination.

These symptoms are also commonly caused due to non-cancerous diseases or cancers due to other organs. When the mentioned symptoms are caused due to ovarian cancer, they tend to continue for a long time and change from normal − for instance, they occur more frequently or are more intense. These symptoms caused due to other conditions, and most of them occur in women who do not have ovarian cancer. Yet, if you have these symptoms more than 12 times a month, consult your doctor to find the problem and treatment, if necessary.

Some other symptoms of ovarian cancer include: Fatigue (extreme tiredness) Constipation Upset stomach Abdominal (belly) swelling with weight loss Back pain Pain during sexual intimacy Changes in a woman’s menstrual, such as heavy or irregular bleeding

Causes of ovarian cancer

Some percentage of ovarian cancer is caused due to gene mutations that you inherit from your parents. The genes known to increase the risk of ovarian cancer are called BRCA 1 and BRCA 2.

Recently, it is found that the cause of ovarian cancer is that it begins in cells at the back end of the fallopian tubes and not necessarily in the ovary itself. Another theory states that male hormones (androgens) can cause ovarian cancer.

Types of ovarian cancer

The ovaries have three main types of cells, hence, a tumor can develop in any of them. The three types are: Epithelial cells, which cover the surface of the ovary Germ cells, which make eggs (ova) Stromal cells, which hold the structure of the ovary together and make the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

Epithelial Tumors

In most cases of ovarian cancer, a tumor starts in the layer of tissue that covers the ovaries. It is common in women who have undergone menopause.

In case the doctor finds an epithelial tumor it does not mean you have cancer. Most epithelial tumors turn out as non-cancer. These benign epithelial tumors include serous adenomas, mucinous adenomas, and Brenner tumors.

If the epithelial tumor is cancer, it is called a carcinoma. It is further broken down into different subtypes based on the observation made under a microscope. The four subtypes of carcinoma are: Serous (the most common subtype) Mucinous Endometrioid Clear Cell

If the tumor cells do not match any of these subtypes, then the carcinoma is undifferentiated means they tend to grow faster and spread rapidly than the other four subtypes of a tumor.

In some cases, an epithelial tumor is not clearly visible to state it as cancer. It is called a low malignant potential (LMP) tumor or borderline epithelial ovarian cancer. This is less life-threatening than other epithelial cancer because it does not grow faster and spread the same way.

Germ Cell Tumors

Women in their 20s are commonly affected by these tumors. Anyhow, women of any age can get them. Most tumors that begin in germ cells are benign.

There are few subtypes of germ cell carcinomas, and tumors can also be a combination of more than one subtype. The four main subtypes include: Teratoma appears as the three layers of a developing embryo when examined under a microscope. The benign version is called a mature teratoma. Immature teratoma is malignant, or cancerous. This type of tumor is very rare and is usually found in girls younger than 18 years of age. Dysgerminoma is the most common type of germ cell cancer, though it is still very rare. This type of cancer does not grow faster or spread rapidly. Most women who get this cancer are in their teenage or 20s.

Endodermal sinus tumor, also known as yolk sac tumor is found in children below the age of 1 to 2 but can occur throughout life. Choriocarcinoma grows and spreads rapidly, occurs in a woman’s womb. They are very rare.

Ovarian Stromal Tumors

These types of tumors are diagnosed earlier than others. The most common subtypes are Granulosa-theca tumors and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors. Both are rare. Another subtype, called granulosa cell tumor (GCT) is also rare.